Some words and concepts used in Graphic Design



Arranging individual elements so that they line up with each other; that is, alignment of the top, bottom, left, or right edges or centered vertically or horizontally.





A design composition does not have to be symmetrical or linear to be considered balanced. It is also true that perfectly symmetrical and linear compositions are not necessarily balanced. Asymmetrical or radial distributions of text and graphic elements can achieve balance in a composition.






Distinguishing by comparing/creating differences. Some ways of creating contrast among elements in the design include using contrasting colors, sizes, shapes, locations, or relationships. For text, contrast is achieved by mixing serif and sans serif on the page, by using very different type styles, or by using type in surprising or unusual ways. Another way to describe contrast, is to say "a small object next to a large object will look smaller". To much contrast can be very off putting t o the viewer





Making a specific element stand out or draw the eye. Emphasis can be achieved in graphic design by placing elements on the page in positions where the eye is naturally drawn, by using other principles such as contrast, repetition, or movement. Bold and italic type provides emphasis for text. Graphic elements gain emphasis through size, visual weight, color, complexity, uniqueness, placement on the page, and other features.






As with music, graphical elements can be said to work in harmony - the individual parts come together as a meaningful whole. Disharmony can also be used just as it is in musical compositions: to enhance the emotional complexity, to challenge the viewer, and to provide a contrast within the overall composition.







Movement is creating an instability, for example making motion to blur the image. Movement can be achieved by using graphic elements that direct the eye in a certain direction such as arrows that point the way or a series of lines or dots that get progressively larger or smaller, which create more subtle sense of movement. Movement can be accomplished simply by using a photograph or clip art of something moving - a runner - as opposed to something stationery - a person standing.








This indicates the relative visual size and weight of particular graphical elements in a design composition.











Closeness or distance of individual design elements. Close proximity indicates a connection.









In design, repetition tends to make a design look balanced, the same style of initial capitals, or repeating the same basic layout from one page to another will do this.

To much repetition may lead to boredom and uninteresting compositions.




White Space

Is not always white. Areas of a design without text or graphics whatever co lour are all White Space.

White space includes margins, gutters, space between lines of type (leading), off-set of text from images (text wraps) and any other part of the page that is empty.

In graphic design, the white space, or negative space, is an important element of the overall design. White space can add to or detract from the balance, unity, harmony, rhythm, and overall success of a design. Often more white space helps.